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The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962.

The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda.

A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted term limits.

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues.

Since 1986, the government – with the support of foreign countries and international agencies – has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs.

The global economic downturn hurt Uganda’s exports; however, Uganda’s GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years, although lower oil prices since 2014 may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda’s main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees.

Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence.

Uganda GDP (purchasing power parity):
$66.65 billion (2014 est.)
$62.93 billion (2013 est.)
$59.51 billion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 98

Uganda GDP (official exchange rate):
$26.09 billion (2014 est.)

Uganda GDP – real growth rate:
5.9% (2014 est.)
5.8% (2013 est.)
2.8% (2012 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 36

Uganda GDP – per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2014 est.)
$1,700 (2013 est.)
$1,700 (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 209

Uganda Gross national saving:
15.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Uganda GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 78.9%
government consumption: 8.8%
investment in fixed capital: 24.2%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 21%
imports of goods and services: -33.2%
(2014 est.)

Uganda GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 21.9%
industry: 26.7%
services: 51.3%
(2014 est.)

Uganda Agriculture – products:
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry

Uganda Industries:
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production

Uganda Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2014 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 52

Uganda Labor force:
18 million (2014 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 34

Uganda Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 82%
industry: 5%
services: 13% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:
24.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:
44.3 (2009)
45.7 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 46

revenues: $3.434 billion
expenditures: $4.431 billion (2014 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
13.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Public debt:
35.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
34.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Fiscal year:
1 July – 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.3% (2014 est.)
5.5% (2013 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
14% (31 December 2010)
9.65% (31 December 2009)
* country comparison to the world: 10

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
21.7% (31 December 2014 est.)
23.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 13

Stock of narrow money:
$2.451 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.269 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Stock of broad money:
$4.075 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.791 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 139

Stock of domestic credit:
$3.908 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.583 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 80

Current account balance:
-$2.224 billion (2014 est.)
-$1.999 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

$2.776 billion (2014 est.)
$2.829 billion (2013 est.)
* country comparison to the world: 133

Exports – partners:
UAE 10.9%, Rwanda 10.3%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.4%, Kenya 9.4%, Germany 6.1%, Netherlands 5.4%, Italy 4.4%, Belgium 4.3% (2013)

Exports – commodities:
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

$5.116 billion (2014 est.)
$4.974 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Imports – commodities:
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals

Imports – partners:
Kenya 19.4%, UAE 14.1%, India 12.2%, China 10.7% (2013)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.711 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.338 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
note: excludes gold
country comparison to the world: 103

Debt – external:
$5.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$4.445 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:

Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar –
2,585.2 (2014 est.)
2,586.9 (2013 est.)
2,505.6 (2012 est.)
2,522.8 (2011 est.)
2,177.6 (2010 est.)

Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa

Geographic coordinates:
29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:

total: 1,219,090 sq km
land: 1,214,470 sq km
water: 4,620 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
* country comparison to the world: 25

Area – comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,244 km
border countries (6): Botswana 1,969 km, Lesotho 1,106 km, Mozambique 496 km, Namibia 1,005 km, Swaziland 438 km, Zimbabwe 230 km

2,798 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 9.89%
permanent crops: 0.34%
other: 89.77% (2012 est.)

Irrigated land:
16,700 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources:
51.4 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 12.5 cu km/yr (36%/7%/57%)
per capita: 271.7 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
prolonged droughts
volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa’s only active volcano

Environment – current issues:
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note:
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

Other, Uganda May 30, 2016

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